Ansible自动化运维之Playbook变量传参

在ansible中,可以通过变量传递参数,传参方式有命令行变量、filter、role、文件或剧本中定义变量等,变量名是以字母开头的字母、数字和下划线的组合。

变量调用优先级:

命令行-e > playbook定义 > hosts普通变量 > host分组变量

0x01 命令行指定变量

# 命令格式
ansible-playbook –e varname=value

# playbook.yml
- hosts: webservice
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
    – name: install_package
      yum: name={{ varname }}
    – name: start service
      service: name={{ varname }} state=started enabled=yes

0x02 在playbook中定义

# playbook.yml
- hosts: webservice
  remote_user: root
  vars:
    - username: demo_user
    - groupname: demo_group
  tasks:
    - name: create_group
      group: name={{ groupname }} state=present
    - name: create_user
      user: name={{ username }} group{{ groupname }} home=/home/{{ username }}dir

0x03 在/etc/ansible/hosts中定义

hosts普通变量示例:

# /etc/ansible/hosts
[webservice]
10.10.10.101 username=lzl hstname=httpd
10.10.10.102 username=lrx hstname=nginx

# playbook.yml
- hosts: webservice
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: set_hostname
    hostname: name={{ hstname }}-{{ username }}

公共/分组变量示例:

# /etc/ansible/hosts
[webservice:vars]
hstname=webservice

# playbook.yml
- hosts: myhosts
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: set_hostname
    hostname: name={{ hstname }}-{{ username }}

0x04 调用变量文件

# vars.yml
username: liuzl
groupname: root

# playbook.yml
- hosts: webservice
  remote_user: root
  vars_files:
  - vars.yml
  tasks:
  - name: create_log
    file: name=/root/{{ groupname }}-{{ username }}.log state=touch

0x05 调用setup变量

远程主机的所有变量都可直接调用,filter是用来匹配字符串,可以使用正则表达式,也可以使用grep过滤,-C选项查看前后三行。

ansible myhosts -m setup -a 'filter=ansible_nodename'
ansible myhosts -m setup -a 'filter=ansible*mb'

0x06 在role中定义

在ansible中,template的功能是根据模块文件动态生成对应的配置文件,它是基于Jinja2语言的文本文件,必须存放于templates目录下,扩展名为.j2,目录结构如下:

./
├── tpl_nginx.yml
└── templates
  └── nginx.conf.j2

示例:

# nginx.conf.j2
Listen {{tcp_port}}
ServerName {{server_name}}
MaxClients {{access_num}}

# /etc/ansible/hosts
[webservice]
10.10.10.202 tcp_port=0.0.0.0:80 access_num=1000 server_name="www.olzl.net"

# playbook.yml
- hosts: webservice
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: install_nginx
    yum: name=nginx
  - name: templates_1
    template: src=nginx_1.conf.j2 dest=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    when: ansible_distribution_major_version == "7"
    notify: restart nginx
    tags: conf
  - name: templates_2
    template: src=nginx_2.conf.j2 dest=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    when: ansible_distribution_major_version == "8"
    notify: restart_nginx
    tags: conf
  - name: start_nginx
    service: name=nginx state=started
  handlers:
  - name: restart_nginx
    service: name=nginx state=restarted

原创文章禁止转载:技术学堂 » Ansible自动化运维之Playbook变量传参

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